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Teachers' Handbook 



1988 1989 Season 



THE NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY 
TEACHERS' HANDBOOK 

1988-89 
Jason Ward, Editor 

*********************************** 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PREFACE 2 

by Jackson Parkhurst 

Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68 (Pastoral) 

Movements III, IV, and V Ludwig Man Beethoven 3 

Classroom Activities by 
Diane P. West 

Concerto for Orchestra Bela Bartok 20 

Movement V 

Classroom Activities by 
Lydia Gill 

Jubilation, An Overture Robert Ward 30 

Classroom Activities by 
Robin Smathers 

*********************************** 



North Carolina Symphony Teachers' Handbook Copyright© 1988 by The 
North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. Reproduction of this book in its 
entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate 
charts, scores, puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

North Carolina Symphony, Post Office Box 28026, Raleigh, North Carolina 
27611, Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education 



PREFACE 

Once again, we are pleased to offer a handbook for use in 
preparing your students for our concerts. We are convinced that 
students who are prepared for what they hear profit from the experience 
many times over those who receive no preparation. I have heard it said 
that it is unnecessary to teach or talk about music - music speaks for 
itself. French also speaks for itself, but unless someone has helped 
the student understand the fundamentals of the language he/she hears 
only sounds and no meaning. Fortunately for us, the meaning of music 
is personal to each listener. Teaching music is encouraging the 
students to believe there is something wonderful there if they will 
just open their ears and their minds. Doesn't it sound easy? I know 
that what you do is not easy, but we at The Symphony and many others in 
your communities appreciate your work in bringing the joy of music to 
your students. 

We continue the tradition of asking music teachers to write this 
book. We are grateful to those who have written this year. We are 
sure that this lesson material, supplemented by the presentations at 
the Teacher Workshop, is a good method of giving you the most useful 
information possible. To repeat what we have said before: this 
material is meant to stimulate, not be a "cookbook" for symphony 
preparation. This season we will perform Movements III, IV & V of 
Beethoven's Sixth Symphony, the finale of Bartok's Concerto for 
Orchestra , and Robert Ward's Jubilation, An Overture^ The other 
works on the concert will be announced as usual. The songs are 
Amazing Grace and The Orchestra Song (also known as the Instrument 
Song T Amazing Grace is in the Teacher's Edition IV of Silver 
Berdette's Music . It is the song that can be played by instrumental 
groups. The Orchestra Song can be found in Holt, Rynehart and 
Winston's The Music Book Teacher's Editions IV . We believe the 
entire program is well integrated, and we hope you will enjoy teaching 
the music. The Teachers' Handbook was edited by Jason Ward, our summer 
intern from the North Carolina Institute of Government. Jason is a 
senior history major at Western Carolina University. He has an avid 
interest in music and performs in many musical groups at WCU. After 
graduation, he hopes to begin a career in the business field. He has 
been a considerable help this year, and I am indebted to him for his 
good work. 

We welcome your comments, compliments, and criticisms on all 
aspects of our program. We listen to them all and take them into 
account when making plans for future seasons. We are grateful for the 
supportive relationship we have with North Carolina music teachers and 
look forward to years of continued cooperation. 

Jackson Parkhurst 
Director of Education 
North Carolina Symphony 



THE NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY'S 1988-89 EDUCATION CONCERT 



Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) Symphony No. 6 in F Major 

Op. 68 (Pastorale) 
by Diane P. West 



Educational Material 

Objective: Students will study the history of Beethoven 
-His life 

-His musical ability 
-His variations of the symphony 
-His revolutionary contributions at the beginning 
of the Romantic period 



Ludwig Van Beethoven 



Born December 16, 1770 
Died March 26, 1827 



Abused as a child, deafened in his later life, and alone in the 
world, this great musician's emotions were always in turmoil. His 
music became an outlet to share all the joys and sorrows hidden deep 
inside himself. All his loneliness, as well as his thoughts about 
nature, man, and his country, emerged in his music. 

Beethoven loved to walk through the countryside by himself with 
his notebook in hand. He would jot down every idea as he interpreted 
the beauty around him into musical ideas. However, it did not end with 
just the inspiration; he would work and rework the musical notes, 
sometimes for years, to mold these rich ideas into masterpieces. 

Born in Bonn, Germany, Beethoven received his grandfather's name 
and musical talent. Ludwig's father, a poor provider and an alcoholic, 
decided that he should raise his son to be a concert performer like 
Mozart. He provided harpsichord and violin lessons for him and then 
insisted that he practice night and day, keeping Ludwig from school and 
other boyhood activities. He selfishly used his son's talents for what 
money he could gain for himself. Ludwig played his first harpsichord 
recital when he was eight and went on tour when he was eleven. He 
studied organ with Neefe and later became his assistant. 

Beethoven was a musical genius, even though his concert tour was 
not as successful as Mozart's. He did meet Mozart and improvized for 
him. Mozart said, "You will some day leave a mark on the world." 

One of the reasons for Beethoven's slow success was that he 
constantly changed teachers. After his father's death in 1792, he 
moved to Vienna. Mozart was no longer living, so he studied 
composition with Haydn. Beethoven refused to take a job which tied him 
down, and this independence allowed him the freedom to express and 



write music as he desired. Neefe had not only taught him organ and 
musical theory but had also taught him the aesthetic value of music; 
therefore, we find Beethoven writing, not about heros, but about their 
souls. 

As his deafness increased, so did his loneliness. He wrote book 
upon book of notes. He even communicated with his friends through his 
sketch books or "conversational notebooks." His sketch books reveal 
much about him, but Beethoven's music shares with us his love for music 
in an everlasting "conversation with the world." 

A ride in an open carriage in bad weather brought on an illness 
that proved fatal. He died in Vienna on March 26, 1827, in his 
fifty-seventh year, famous and revered throughout the musical world. 

Objective: Students will become familiar with the meaning of 
"programmatic" music and the inspiration behind the 
"Pastorale" Symphony. 

The "Pastoral" Symphony 

Completed in 1808, the "Pastoral" Symphony's first performance was 
in Theater An Der Wein, Vienna, December 22, 1808 when the Fifth 
Symphony, the Fourth Piano Concerto, and Choral Fantasy were also heard 
for the first time. 

Although Beethoven made constant notes about his ideas and music, 
he felt it unneccessary to explain his music. His music was 
programmatic, not because of his rebellion against the style of the 
Classical period, but because of the demands of his ideas and 
inspiration. 

Beethoven's passionate love of nature is expressed in his Pastoral 
Symphony. Composing was "thinking in sound" to Beethoven. He could 
roam the woods and not be effected by his lack of hearing. Each 
movement is tied together by a single idea carried throughout. 

Movement I— Allegro ma non troppo 

(Cheerful impressions awakened by arrival in the country) 

Movement II— Andante molto moto 
(Scene by the brook) 

Movement III— Allegro 

(Merry gathering of country folk) 

Movement IV — Allegro 
(Thunderstorm, tempest) 

Movement V — Al leg ret to 

(Shepherd' -, r ,ong, glad and grateful feelings after the storm) 



Objective: Students will discover changes in Classical symphonic style 
in Beethoven's music. 



The Symphony 

The third movement of the symphony is usually a dance movement. 
In the symphonies of the late eighteeth century, the dance was a 
minuet. Beethoven transformed the minuet into a scherzo (a joke) 
bursting with energy. Both the minuet and the scherzo are generally in 
3/4 or 3/8 time. The scherzo is faster than the minuet; it is more 
rhythmic— more impetuous. In both the minuet and scherzo, the middle 
section is known as the trio; it is quieter and gentler than the first 
section. At the end of the trio the first section is repeated Da 
Capo . Hence both the minuet and the scherzo are in A-B-A form. 

The fourth movement of the Classical symphony balances the first 
in size and importance. It is often in sonata-allegro form, like the 
first. Sometimes it is a gay rondo, or a theme and variations. The 
eighteenth-century symphony usually ended on a gay note— the 
nineteenth-century on a note of triumph. 

The following outline gives a quick view of the four movements of 
the Classical symphony. Do not forget that the laws of music are far 
more flexible than the laws of physics or biology. While many 
symphonies follow this pattern, quite a few do not. In the Sixth 
Symphony, Beethoven had five movements instead of four. 

Movement Character Form 

First Epic-dramatic Sonata-allegro 

Second Slow and lyrical A-B-A or Theme and variations 

Third Minuet(18th century) Minuet and trio (A-B-A) 

Scherzo (19thcentury) Scherzo and trio (A-B-A) 

Fourth Lively finale (18th) Sonata-allegro, Rondo, or 

Triumphal ending (19th) Theme and variations 

(Material taken from Music: Adventures in Listening by Joseph 
Machlis) 

Objective: Students will develop listening skills through study of 
themes and form of music by: 

1) clapping rhythm of themes 

2) singing themes 

3) playing on instruments and recorders 

4) following call charts 



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Movement III (Scherzo) 

Principal Theme I 
Principal Theme II 
First Intermediate Theme 
Second Intermediate Theme 
Third Intermediate Theme 
Subordinate Theme II 
Subordinate Theme I 



violins, flute 

viol ins 

violins 

bassoon, horns, flutes 

oboe 

horns 

oboe 



and violins 



Trio 



Principal Theme I 

Principal Theme II 

Repeat- repeat-repeat-repeat 

Principal Section 

Principal Theme I 

Principal Theme II 

Principal Theme I 



violins 
bassoon 



violin, flute 
flute, clarinet 
violin 



Presto - Full Orchestra 



Intermediate Theme I 
Intermediate Theme II 
Bridge 



violins 
horns, flutes 



oboe 



Movement IV (Storm) 

Principal Theme I 
Principal Theme II 
Subordinate Theme II 
Principal Theme 
Final Return Principal Theme 

Part I 
Principal Theme 

Part I 

Part II 
Bridge to Fifth Movement 



violins, flute, oboe 

basses 

basses 

basses, violin, flute 

basses 

basses 



Movement V (Shepherd's Song) 

Introduction 
Principal Theme I 
Principal Theme II 
First Subordinate Theme 
Concluding Theme-Codetta 



clarinet 

violin, basses, bassoon 
violin, basses 
basses, bassoon 

violin, flute, oboe, clarinet, 
bassoon, horn, full orchestra 



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Second Subordinate Theme 

Principal Theme I 

Principal Theme II 

Codetta 

Coda-Section I 

Section II 

Section III 

Section IV 
Ending 



violin 

clarinet, bassoon 

second violin 

violin, basses 

violin 

bassoon, bass-bassoon, violin 

bass-bassoon, basses 

bassoon, basses 

basses, violin 






Music and Dance 

Objective: Students will develop listening skills by experiencing the 
rhythms and themes through choreographed movement. 

Peasant scarves and handkerchiefs for the girls and caps for the 
boys would add a nice touch to this dance and would make it much more 
real is tic. 



Peasant Dance 

Movement III 
"Joyful Gathering of the Country Folks" 
Choreographed by Nicole LaMotte 
Dance Teacher, Wake Co. Schools 

This is a line dance. Use as many partners as you have space for 
at one time. Several lines can be going at the same time. 

I. Dancers facing partners 
Hands on waist 
Side-step 8 counts 

II. Hands on hips 

Right heel digs - look right at feet 
Left heel digs - look left at feet 
Alternate each of these for 8 counts 

III. Hands folded (do-si-do style) 
Gallop a square around partner 
Front-left foot lead - 2 counts 
Side-right foot lead - 2 counts 
Back-left foot lead - 2 counts 
Side-left foot lead - 2 counts 

These 8 counts should complete the square and you should be back 
in place 

IV. Hands still folded - partners meet in 4 counts 
Lean left/right (partners go opposite ways) 1 count 

e to center (both) 1 count 
Lean right/left (partners opposite and opposite of way in 1) 

1 count 
back to center ] count 



11 



V. Repeat I - IV then go to VI 

VI. Repeat IV except couple steps back in 4 counts and then 

lean in opposite directions and center and reverse and center on 
4 counts 

VII. Partners bow and curtsy - 2 counts 

(Girls and boys are going to be used to identify the two different 
parts, but you do not have to have them paired this way.) 

VIII. Hands on hips 

Boys - alternating legs - touch foot and touch jumps, hands on 

hips - 16 counts 
At the same time - girls - bounce on heels as boys touch - jump - 

hands on hips 

IX. Girls - hankys overhead one hand on hip - gallop in a circle 

6 counts 
On count 7-8 change hands 
Repeat this part 5 times 

Boys bow each time the bassoon plays a solo part - begins on count 5 

X. Partners bow and curtsy - 2 counts 

XI. Crossing hands with partner - partners kick right feet - turn 

kick left feet - 8 counts 

XII. Turn side to side, hands still crossed, promonade in backwards, 

circle for 8 counts 

XIII. Hands on partner's shoulders, sashay down - 8 counts 
Circle in 8 counts 

Sashay back in 8 counts 
Circle again in 8 counts 

XIV. Holding partner's hand, run to opposite end of line as if diving, 

then up with hands on final holding count 



Additional Teaching Ideas 

Art and Music 

Cartoon Music History 

Reference Book: The Story of Music in Cartoon by Bernard Dyries 

Nedys Lemery, and Michael Sadler 

I. Study the life of Beethoven 



12 



II. Study the symphony and how it has changed from the classical 

style to Beethoven's 

III. Study the story of the "Pastoral" Symphony, do chalk drawings 

of what you think Beethoven was seeing when he wrote the 
music. This could be done in sets of three for each movement 
showing the changes before and after the storm. 



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Can you -find these words' 



CONTRABASSOON 
BTRINGBASS 

ORCHESTRA 

CLARINET 

PASTORAL 

PICCOLO 

COUNTRY 

VIENNA 

MOZART 

THEME 

NEEFE 

DANCE 

TRIO 

BONN 



INSPIRATION 

SKETCHBOOK 

BEETHOVEN 

TROMBONE 

SYMPHONY 

BASSOON 

SCHERZO 

BRIDGE 

VIOLIN 

HORNS 

MAJOR 

HAYDN 

DEAF 



HARPSICHORD 

CLASSICAL 

ROMANTIC 

SHEPHERD 

TRUMPET 

ALLEGRO 

GERMANY 

SONATA 

LUDWIG 

FLUTE 

STORM 

ORGAN 

OBOE 






Answer Key for: BEETHuVEN 



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17 



BEETHOVEN CROSSWORD 



ACROSS: 

2. A composition, of varied movements for an orchestra 

(ex. Beethoven's 'Pastoral') 
6. Violin, viola, cello and string bass are examples 

8. A brass instrument with a slide 

9. A string instrument, studied by Beethoven along with the 
harpsichord 

10. Country in which Beethoven was born 

12. German birthplace of Ludwig Van Beethoven 

14. The elaboration of various themes in the symphony movements 

18. A forerunner of the piano, in which the strings were plucked by 

quills 
20. The smallest woodwind instrument that is a small flute 
22. The highest pitched instrument in the brass family 

24. The style of music and period of music history written by Mozart 
and Haydn 

25. A composer of nine symphonies, one of which was the 'Pastoral' 
Symphony 



DOWN: 

1. Member of woodwind family that plays in the bass clef 

3. Programatic description 

4. A piece of music of playful character. Replaced the minuet in the 
symphony 

5. A double reed instrument that is used to tune the orchestra 

7. An ending to a piece of music that is independent of other themes 

but adds a final touch 
11. Music of the. romantic period that usually describes a scene or 

tells a story 
13. A final restatement of the themes in the symphony movements 

15. The first statements of the themes in the symphony movement 

16. Style of music and period in music history begun by Beethoven 

17. Home of Haydn and place where Beethoven moved after his father's 
death 

19. A group of musicians composed mostly of strings, plus brass and 

percussion instruments 
21. A keyboard wind instrument, studied by Beethoven under teacher 

Keefe 
23. A slow, graceful dance in three-four time. Sometimes used in the 

symphony 



«'. 



ANSWER KEY 



J own 



8. 

9 

10, 



14 

18 

20 

-—. *~i 

24, 



SYMPHONY 

STRINGS 

TROMBONE 

VIOLIN 

GERMANY 

BONN 

DEVELOPMENT 

HARPSICHORD 

PICCOLO 

TRUMPET 

CLASSICAL 

BEETHOVEN 



1 . BASSOON 

3. PASTORAL 

4. SCHERZO 

5. OBOE 
7. CODA 

11. PROGRAM I C 

RECAPITULATION 

EXPOSITION 

ROMANTIC 

VIENNA 

ORCHESTRA 

ORGAN 

MINUET 



13 
15 
16 
17 
19 
21 






SYMPHONY 











A 












A 















C 










c 


"T 


R 


I 


N 


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S 




c 






B 




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s 












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M 


B 





N 


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6 


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A 

















- 












Li 


E 


v 


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|_ 





P 


M 


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Q 








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v 











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3 


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1 

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19 



Diane P. West is a music teacher at Lucille Hunter G T Magnet 
School in Wake County. She has 10 years of experience in both middle 
school and elementary levels with a Bachelor of Music in Education 
degree from East Carolina University. In the magnet program she 
teaches basic music classes plus chorus, theater production and other 
special elective classes. 



:; 



Bela Bartok (1881-1945) 



Concerto for Orchestra 
Movement V 
by Lydia Gill 



The North Carolina Symphony is playing a movement from Bartok' s 
Concerto for Orchestra , one of the most popular and accessible 20th 
century compositions for orchestra. It appeals to audiences all over 
the world, and is a superb example of Bartok' s most mature writing: 
fresh, energetic, and concisely worked out. Bela Bartok is one of the 
three or four musical giants of the first half of this century and 
indeed one of the great composers of all time. 

Two factors that distinguish Bartok's music can be heard in his 
Concerto for Orchestra : his use of folk materials, especially of his 
native Hungary, and his use of color. The use of folk elements is an 
essential part of his composition, as is his ability to color his music 
with many varieties of sound, rhythm, harmony and dynamics. He is a 
20th century composer who absorbed the lessons of the past, both folk 
and classical, and created a new, colorful music of his own. 

Bela Bartok (1881-1945) was born in Hungary on March 25, 1881, the 
son of the director of a government agricultural school and of a 
schoolteacher. Bartok's parents noticed his musical ability when he 
was a year and a half old. At age three he accompanied his mother's 
piano playing on a drum, and at five he began piano lessons with her. 
Lessons were intermittently interrupted because Bela suffered from a 
bronchial condition and curvature of the spine. His father died when 
Bela was seven, and his mother had the responsibility of raising him 
and his younger sister. 

Bartok gave his first public performances as a pianist and a 
composer at age eleven. His brilliance as a pianist led to his 
acceptance at The Royal Academy of Music at seventeen. While a 
student, Bartok developed a lifelong interest in true folk music. With 
his friend and fellow composer, Zoltan Kodaly, he spent two years 
collecting folk songs directly from the peasants in remote villages of 
Hungary. Later he studied the folk music of neighboring countries and 
over the years published his findings. Bartok's discovery of authentic 
Hungarian peasant music complemented his study of classical Western 
European music. Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Richard Strauss, Wagner, 
Liszt, Debussy, Stravinsky, and Schoenberg all had a great impact on 
hirn as a composer. Bartok merged elements of Eastern folk music--its 
different rhythms, unusual scales and modes, and haunting, lyrical 
qual ity — with traditional music of the West. 

He adhered to tonality, unlike some 20th century composers, but he 
used dissonant combinations of notes, chords and melodies, which were 
often built on the interval of a fourth or with a major or minor second 
ed for pungency. He puctuated his music with strong percussive 
-Lions and offbeat accents. He was an expert at contrapuntal 
techniques and in developing new motives from fragments of others. 

Bartok wrote a groat amount of music for piano for all levels of 
playing, especially in the six volumes of pieces called the 
Mikrokosmos. He wrote an opera, two ballets, six string quartets, 



21 



concertos for piano, violin, and viola, Music for String Instruments, 
Percussion, and Celesta , and the Sonata for Two Pianos and 
Percussion" ! Bartok's international recognition came after his death, 
but in 1944 he witnessed the immediate success of his Concerto for 
Orchestra . 

Bartok composed the Concerto for Orchestra in seven weeks during 
the summer and fall of 1943, two years before his death. The conductor 
of the Boston Symphony, Serge Koussevitsky , visited Bartok in a 
hospital in New York, where he was being treated for leukemia, and 
commissioned him to write some pieces for orchestra, to be dedicated to 
the memory of the Maestro' s late wife. Since fleeing Hungary in 1940, 
Bartok had been in such poor health that he had not composed for two 
years. By playing concerts with his wife, Ditta, and by teaching and 
lecturing, he had made barely enough money in the United States to live. 

At first Bartok feared he would not be strong enough to fulfill 
the commission, but Koussevitzky advanced Bartok some money with which 
he and his wife went to the mountains, where his health improved. He 
poured into the Concerto for Orchestra the energy and ideas that had 
been building up in him during the previous two years of silence. 

The Concerto for Orchestra is the largest of Bartok's orchestral 
works. From Bartok's own program notes for the first performance in 
1944 by the Boston Symphony, we learn that the title "concerto" comes 
from choirs of instruments of the orchestra being treated like 
soloists, displaying virtuosity while the rest of the orchestra 
accompanies. It is truly a showpiece for the symphony orchestra. 

The five movements form an arch with the two outside movements in 
sonata form, the second and fourth scherzos, and the middle movement, 
in Bartok's words "a death song." Bartok also says: "The general mood 
of the work represents, apart from the jesting second movement, a 
gradual transition from the sternness of the first movement and the 
lugubrious death song of the third, to the life assertion of the last 
one." Perhaps the serious first movement represents Bartok's concern 
with World War II, especially Hungary's subjection by Nazi Germany, and 
the lively, energetic last movement, Bartok's belief in the ultimate 
brotherhood of all peoples. 



The Finale of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra 



The Finale of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra contains some of 
Bartok's most complex fugal writing, but it is easily enjoyable because 
of its energy, folklike rhythms and tunes, and colorful orchestration. 
According to Bartok, it is "written in a more or less regular sonata 
form," as is the first movement. Although the movement as a whole is 
marked "presto," its excitement and crescendos are puctuated by three 
tranquil sections, two marked "tranquillo" and one n ur) poco meno 
mosso." These make marvelous changes in mood and color. One occurs 
right after the introduction of a second theme (later referred to as 
Theme B) by the bassoon at the end of the exposition, another at the 
end of the development section just before the return, and the biggest 
shift in color and mood after a climatic build-up in the development 
section when the timpani play a glissando and two harps and muted 



:: 



violins come in "un poco meno mosso." The strings follow with a jazzy 
fugato based on the second theme. 

Bartok's orchestration provides dramatic color. He uses brass for 
stating themes and reinforcing the climaxes, woodwinds for introducing 
new material fugally and for having colorful dialogues with the 
strings, and strings for initiating the build-ups (and once for 
executing an extremely effective diminuendo in the exposition just 
before the introduction of the second theme) and for playing a 
perpetual motion idea. 

Bartok puts into play the full dynamic range of the orchestra. 
Every build-up has a little more excitement and intensity throughout 
the movement. Bartok uses a fragment of his first theme (the falling 
thirds) for the coda with the perpetual motion idea in triplets. After 
a fragment of the second theme is stated triumphantly in augmentation 
(twice as slow) by the brass saying, "This is the end now," strings and 
winds ascend in a whirlwind scale to a crashing chord that ends the 
movement. 

This work is logical, convincing, full of vitality, and easy to 
appreciate and enjoy— the characteristics that make it one of the 
greatest pieces for orchestra of this century. 



Suggestions for Teaching and Main Ideas as they Occur 



All the important themes throughout the concerto derive from a 
germ theme. For example, here are two themes from the first movement: 

First Movement's two main themes. Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra 




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I. CALL CHART— CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA, FINALE 
Here are the main ideas of the Finale in order: 



1. Theme A is stated once by the horns at the very beginning. It has 
three ideas: an octave leap, falling thirds, and an ascending scale. 
Words for singing: "Octave, down some skips then go up the scale 
step-by-step," or "Bartok married his wife when she was only sixteen!" 




SS3= 



23 



2. Perpetual Motion Idea, a whirlwind in the violins, turns out to be 
the glue that binds this movement together and the source of other 
ideas. It starts "pp" and crescendos into a robust folk dance motif, 
then does it again with more excitement. 





PP vine 

3. Folk Dance Idea 

Y" T vfcUCL <_JL 




4. Other Folk Dance Ideas 



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6. Theme B introduced by Trumpet II and answered in an inversion by 
Trumpet I. Longer than Theme A, it fills-in the octave, has a repeated 
note idea, and a third part with triplets. Words: "Trumpets play all 
these crisp repeated notes detached staccato, play these crisp little 
short notes, they all play the B Theme for the first time alone." 



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25 



II. RHYTHM ACTIVITIES 



Objective: Clap the rhythm patterns of the main ideas 

Materials Needed: 10 flash cards with the following rhythms on them 

or a large chart or a chalk board 

Method: Have your students 

1. Echo clap the rhythms. 

2. Say the rhythms using Kodaly syllables or other method for 
counting note values. 

3. Say and clap them. 

4. Play them on percussion instruments. 

5. Play tunes of the themes on the piano and have students clap 
with you. 



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III. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVITIES 



A. Word search with instruments used in Bartok's instrumentation 
for the concerto for orchestra 

B. Word search for words describing the concerto for orchestra 

C. Coded message about the Concerto for Orchestra 

The solution to the coded puzzle reads: The Concerto for 
Orchestra was a triumph for the Boston Symphony. It became one of the 
most popular modern works for orchestra and assured Bartok recognition 
as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. 

Have your students decipher the message individually or with a 
partner. If working with a partner, have one student begin at the 
given "T" and the other on the seventh line, which will be the 
beginning of the second sentence. 



26 



G 


D 


R 


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M 


X 


W 





D 


T 


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W 


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P\. There are 22 instruments of the orchestra in this word search. 
Can you find them? 

MFGFNOOSSABXJDNUL 
IULSROLOCCIPEOPMS 

EGGBWEPGCRCL 

XNCELLOBLAAA 

EWCGCDWVAHPB 

SMNHFPVIRZOM 

LAUEHJMOIRJY 

IEBROOJLNAYC 

RMTBMDBRIEOCT 

WEDTVOURABEONTIUF 

INAPMYTROSGDTBBKK 

TAMTAMQGTMSMIAYLU 

CNAUJSAUXKBOGSGKF 

VOVYZPTLNZHOODRTZ 

TENIRALCSSABNOCIJ 

FMHSRBIHHVJDKENIC 

T M . L -Q J .0 S .G S D Y-~U T Q N Y Q 

Here are the words to look for: 

BASSCLARINET BASSDRUM 

BASSOON CELLO 

CLARINET CYMBALS 

DOUBLEBASS DOUBLEBASSOON 

FLUTE FRENCHHORN 

HARP OBOE 

PICCOLO SIDEDRUM 

TAMTAM TRIANGLE 

TROMBONE TRUMPET 

TUBA TYMPANI 

VIOLA VIOLIN 



27 



6. There are 22 words that describe Bartok's "Concerto for 
Orchestra, Movement V," in this word search. Can you 
find them? 



L 


D 


M 


I 


c 


A 


N 





N 


I 


C 


S 


E 





M 


G 


P 


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Q 


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L 


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Here are the words to look for 



CANONIC 

CRAZY 

ENERGETIC 

FANTASTIC 

FURIOUS 

INVERTED 

MISCHIEVOUS 

PERCUSSIVE 

SCARY 

SYNCOPATED 

UNUSUAL 



CONTRAPUNTAL 

DIFFICULT 

EXCITING 

FUGAL 

INTERESTING 

MAJESTIC 

NERVOUS 

PRESTO 

STRONG 

TRANQUIL 

WEIRD 



:s 



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9 3 

S 



7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 ( 

1 





T 



-2— W— O 



-Y— U- 

I I 

-P— 4- 



-9f 



-T— . 



-N- 

I 

-M- 



-C— S- 



Facts about Bartok in code: 
Use the graph to locate the letter 
represented by each coordinate pair. 

Write the letter in the blank 
provided . 

The first one has been done for you. 



i < 



-H- 



0123456789 



T 



773 770 1,3 4,0 8,9 6,4 4,0 1,3 2,7 7,5 8,9 2,0 8,9 2,7 



8,9 2,7 4,0 7,0 1,3 5,0 7,5 2,7 6,6 7,9 6,6 5,0 6,6 



775 277 5,1 7,8 6,3 6,7 7,0 2,0 8,9 2,7 '3,3 6,6 2,7 7,5 8,9 3,2 



5^ 6,4 6,2 9,8 7,7 0,9 7,9 7,0 1,3 6,4 5,1 7,5 7,9 6,6 5,0 



6,7 2,7 1,3 6,3 5,1 1,3 2,7 1,3 1,4 3,3 6,8 7,5 7,0 1,3 



3,3 8,9 5,0 7,5 8,9 6,4 '5,0 6,8 6,3 6,77, 08, 9 6,4 6,8 8,5 



571 775 3,31,34,06,66,31,3 8,96,41,3 8,92,0 7,57,01,3 



673 8,9 5,0 7,5 6,7 8,9 6,7 7,8 8,2 6,6 2,7 6,3 8,9 1,4 1,3 2,7 6,4 



7,9 8,9 2,7 3,2 5,0 2,0 8,9 2,7 ' 8,9 2,7 4,0 7,0 1,3 5,0 7,5 2,7 6,6 



676 6,4 1,4 6,6 5,0 5,0 7,8 2,7 1,3 1,4 3,3 6,6 2,7 7,5 8,9 3,2 



27? 1,3 4,0 8,9 9,0 6,4 5,1 7,5 5,1 8,9 6,4 6,6 5,0 8,9 6,4 1,3 8,9 2,0 



7,5 7,0 1,3 9,0 2,7 1,3 6,6 7,5 1,3 5,0 7,5 



4,0 8,9 6,3 6,7 8,9 5,0 1,3 2,7 5,0 8,9 2,0 7,5 7,0 1,3 



6,9 0,2 7,5 7,0 4,0 1,3 6,4 7,5 7,8 2,7 6,8 8,5 



29 



Biographical Information on Lydia Gill 



Lydia Gill lives in Southern Pines and teaches music at The O'Neal 
School, a private school grades pre-kindergarten through twelve in 
Southern Pines. Her main instrument is piano, but she has played 
violin and sings in the Moore County Choral Society. She has a B.A. 
degree from Duke University and a M.M. degree from the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While in Chapel Hill she studied 
Dalcroze Eurhythmies and using Dalcroze techniques, taught young 
children music and movement. Having taught piano many years, she still 
has some private piano students. 



Resources 



Austin, William W. , Music in the 20th Century , Norton and Co., 

New York, 1966 
Machlis, Joseph, Introduction to Contemporary Music , Norton and Co 

New York, 1961 

Stevents, Halsey, The Life and Music of Bela Bartok , Oxford 
University Press, New York, 1964 

Ujfalussy, Jozsef, Bela Bartok , Crescendo Pub. Co., Boston, 1972 

Grout, Donald Jay, A History of Western Music , Norton and Co., 
New York, 1960 



_. 



30 



Robert Ward (1917-present) 



Classroom Activities 



Jubilation, An Overture 
by Robin Smathers 



Highlights about Robert Ward 

-born September 13, 1917, in Cleveland, Ohio 

-began piano lessons around age 9-10, but, being an "all too 

normal" young boy, temporarily abandoned his lessons to play 

ball 
-was actively involved in church and school musical activities 
-graduated from Eastman School of Music where he majored in 

composition under Bernard Rogers and Howard Hanson 
-completed graduate studies at Julliard with Frederick Jacobi, at 

the same time studying with Aaron Copland at the Berkshire 

Music Center 
-was the bandleader of the 7th Infantry Division during World War 

II 
-served on the faculties of Queens College, Columbia University, 

and Julliard School of Music before and after the war 
-conducted the Doctor's Orchestral Society of New York (1949-1955) 

and became music director of the Third Street Music School 

Settlement (1952-1955) 
-became Executive Vice-President and Managing Editor of Galaxy 

Music Corp. and Highgate Press in 1956, holding this post until 

1967 when he was named President of the North Carolina School 

of the Arts in Winston-Salem 
-is presently the Mary Duke Biddle Professor of Music at Duke 

University 
-has excelled in practically all forms of composition, including 

three operas (one of them, The Crucible , a Pultizer prize 

winner), four symphonies, a piano concerto, a string quartet, 

and assorted works for orchestra, band, voice, and chamber 

ensemble 
-has been described as "a confident fusion of romantic impulse and 

classical form, characterized by an always fluent lyrical line 

and a keen rhythmic pulse . . . his idiom has never strayed far 

from the invigorating accents of the American musical 

vernacular" 



Historical background of the Jubilation Overture 

-was written for the most part while Ward was band leader of the 

7th Infantry Division Band during the campaigns of Leyte and 

Okinawa 
-is musically preoccupied with jazz, "a natural result of the 

composer's activity at the time with a large swing band" 
-is not programatic beyond the composer's jubilant mood 



31 



Approach I: The Jazz and Blues Influence 

Objective: Students will use various classroom instruments to 

experience syncopated rhythms and to improvise on the 
"blues" scale, to approach an understanding of the 
contemporary/popular styles influencing Ward's overture. 

Note : The melody below is NOT from the Jubilation Overture 
but is purely for experiential purposes, utilizing 
syncopation and the "blues" scale. However, Ward did 
incorporate this scale, using the flatted third and 
seventh, as well as some of the rhythmic idioms used 
below. 



Materials: Recording, charts or transparencies, resonator bells, 
recorders, small percussion, and Orff xylophones 

Plan: This approach should be used as a preliminary lesson to 

actually studying the overture, rather than a singular lesson, 
since the Jubilation Overture is a symphonic work influenced 
by jazz, not a jazz composition 

1. Introduce the rhythm of the following melody using rhythmic 
syllables: 



J A M M i 



to 



to 



syn-co- pa ta ta 



etc 



2. Use echo-playing to then introduce the melodic couterpart of 
this tune to the recorders. Then display a visual of the two repeated 
measures . . . OR . . . you may choose to teach this part to a barred 
instrument through patschen and solfege hand signs or by rote. 

3. As recorders repeat this melody, have students feel the chord 
changes for the resonator bells using body percussion: 



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Transfer this bordun to the resonator bells or another barred 
instrument. You may wish to give the individual bells to children in 
three groups, one group for each chord, then point to each group on the 
chord changes. This bordun will continue throughout both the A and B 
sections. 
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4. After A is well established, have various pitched and unpitched 
percussion improvise over the bordun. Any barred instruments should be 
set-up in the following blues-like scale, which is a D-Pentatonic with 
the added flatted third and seventh: ^ - — 

*Notes in () are "blues scale" ~~7 Q - /J jEL 

additions to the pentatonic scale f + + w u r^ 



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5. Continue alternating A section with B improvisational section 
at your discretion, finishing with A. action- 



Review: 



Remind students that "syn-co-pa" symbolizes syncopation, 
-ch, along with the "blues scale" and the improvisation 
jazz idioms wich influenced Ward's Jubilation 



which 

are _ __ _ 

Overture. N °w they are ready"to"study one" of "the other 
approaches to actually become familiar with Ward's 
compost it ion. 



Recorders 



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Use D,E,F,F#,A,B,C,D' on barred Qrff "instruments for" improv 




(various v 
instr . rs 

i 

Resonator 
bells 



Approach II: Form 

Objective: Students will recognize the various sections of sonata 

form: exposition, development, recapitulation, and coda 
within the Jubilation Overture 

Materials: Recording, visual aides 

Plan: 1. Introduce visuals of the five main themes 

j 'strings, winds, horns ' 



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2. Discuss with students the overall format of the sonata-allegro 



Exposition 
Theme I, 

key of E flat 
Theme II 
Theme III 
Theme IV 
Theme V 



Development Recapitulation 
Theme I, D, Dm, Gm Theme I 



Coda 



Theme I 
(restatement) 
Theme II, fragment Theme II 
Theme V, fragment Theme III 
Theme I, B flat Theme IV 
Variation of Theme V plus minor 

Theme IV variation from 
Theme III, leads development , 

to bridge back to 

recapitulation 

3. Use one of the following suggested visuals to follow this form 
as the music is played: 

a. stars and stripes visual (using our national colors) 

b. comouflage visual (using insignias from the various armed 

forces) 

c. homecoming map (representing the trip home from World War 

II) 



STARS AND STRIPES VISUAL 



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(red) 



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stripes--^- red 
star --- blue 



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CAMOUFLAGE VISUAL 




Exposition 



Development 



Recapitulation Coda 



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-It. green 



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Movement might be a natural outgrowth of this visual. One could 
use flags or banners bearing the various insignias. Dividing the class 
into the five branches of the armed forces, groups could move as they 
hear their theme. The musical notation for each theme might also be 
written on the banner, which could be on the different colors of paper 
or cloth noted above. 

Homecoming Map (page 35) 

Since musical maps have been used extensively in previous years, 
may feel confident elaborating on this approach. "Maps" seem most 
ul in following themes and calling attention to various tone 

It is important to point out to the students that, although 
Mr. Ward's composition is NOT a programmatic piece, this map is used to 
lern in visually following the music, as well as reminding them 
of the urn'- period in which it was composed. 



35 




ic 



Approach III: Percussion Score 

Objective: Students will use various unpitched percussion instruments 
to accompany the five main themes of the Jubilation 
Overture , in order to better recognize these themes and 
as a prelude to discussing the tone colors incorporated 
by Ward 

Materials: Recording, chart, or transparency of rhythm score, rhythm 
sticks, triangles, cabasa, vibraslap, cymbals, castanets, 
finger cymblas, tone blocks, tambourines, maracas, hand 
drums, or such alternatives you may have in your rhythm 
equipment 

Plan: 

1. Have students listen to the overture at least one time, either 
using visuals of the notation of the five themes, or by using one of 
the suggestions in Approach II. 

2. Point out to the students how Ward utilized various tone colors 
for the five themes, even changing some tone colors when some themes 
recur in the recapitulation. 

3. Review the rhythm of each section of the percussion score, 
noting that only certain tone colors will play on each theme. You may 
wish to use rhythmic syllables (ta, ti-ti, to, syn-co-pa, etc.) to 
assist the students in learning their part. 

4. Play the percussion score along with the exposition section of 
the recording (Note: Some rhythms have been altered or simplified for 
easier playing). The full percussion score is on the following page. 

Supplemental Approach: Integrated Curriculum 

Objective: Students will discover how art and music express moments in 
history, thus integrating art, music, and social studies, 
as well as possible geography and literature activities 

Materials: A print or collection of prints containing Norman 
Rockwell's "Homecoming G.I." and a world map 

Plans: 

1. Art - display a print of Norman Rockwell's celebrated 
painting, "Homecoming G.I." Note how this was painted in 1945, within 
a year of Ward's composing the Jubilation Overture . Compare how both 

deal with the return to civilian life from World War II. 

2. L i terature/Art - after viewing the Rockwell print, you may 
wish to discuss how students would feel if they had a father or brother 
returning from war. They may write about this topic or create a visual 
of what "homecoming" would look like at their house. 






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55 



3. Social Studies/Geography - utilize maps and any resources 
from their social studies textbooks concerning World War II. Point out 
where Okinawa and Leyte are on the map, discussing how Ward wrote the 
overture in these locations while serving in the Seventh Infantry 
Division Band. You may wish to discuss the effect of the atomic bomb, 
causing an earlier-than-expected return home. 



References/Resources 

Chase, Gilbert (1966). America's Music . New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Co. 

102 Favorite Paintings by Norman Rockwell (1978). New York: Crown 
Publ ishers. 

Pamphlet by BMI (1987). Robert Ward, BMI. New York: B.M.I. 



Robin Smathers holds a B.S. degree in music education from the 
University of Connecticut. She teaches K-6 music at Oakley and 
Weaverville schools in Buncombe County, where she has taught for nine 
years. She resides in Mars Hill. 



39 



********** 



Copies of Your North Carolina Symphony Book , Teachers' Handbook , 
and recordings of the music on this year's program can be purchased 
from the Symphony office. Write to The North Carolina Symphony, P. 0. 
Box 28026, Raleigh, North Carolina 27611 for order forms, or call 
(919)733-9536. 

Please place orders early enough to allow two weeks for delivery. 
Materials are available as long as supplies last; please place orders 
early. 

Be sure to check other sources such as new and old editions of 
textbooks, the Bowmar recording series, and the RCA series, Adventures 
in Music for additional and related material pertaining to the music 
on this year's program. 

We want to thank all music educators who contributed to this year's 
Handbook for their cooperation and enthusiasm. We welcome all 
comments and suggestions on our education program. All correspondence 
should be sent to: Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education and 
Assistant Conductor, The North Carolina Symphony, P. 0. Box 28026, 
Raleigh, North Carolina 27611. 

NOTES 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



3 3091 00748 4009